The 2 agreements contribute to the objectives of the EU`s common commercial policy by removing technical barriers to trade and facilitating access to markets outside the EU. The 1958 Agreement is based on the principles of type-approval and mutual recognition. Any country that accedes to the 1958 Convention has the power to test and approve the design of a regulated product by any manufacturer, regardless of the country in which that component was manufactured. Each individual design of each individual manufacturer is counted as an individual type. Once an acceding country has granted a type-approval, any other acceding country shall be required to grant such type-approval and to consider that such vehicle or motor vehicle equipment is lawful for import, sale and use. Articles approved under UN regulations are marked with an E and number within a circle. The number indicates the country in which the article was approved and the other letters and numbers surrounding indicate the exact version of the Regulation adopted or the type-approval number. In recent years, the European Union has decided to replace as many EU directives as possible with the 1958 UN Convention and to refer directly to these UN regulations in EU law. Revision 3 of the 1958 Agreement entered into force on 14 September 2017. The global technical harmonization of vehicles is governed by two international conventions – the 1958 Convention and the 1998 Parallel Convention. These agreements establish globally harmonised requirements to ensure a high level of safety, environmental protection, energy efficiency and protection against theft. Both agreements help to remove existing technical barriers to trade and prevent the creation of new barriers to trade. EU participation allows manufacturers easy access to markets outside the EU.
Most countries, even if they do not formally participate in the 1958 Convention, recognize UN regulations and reflect the content of UN regulations in their own national requirements or allow the import, registration and use of UN-approved vehicles or both. The United States and Canada (with the exception of lighting regulations) are the two main exceptions; UN regulations are generally not recognized, and UN-compliant vehicles and equipment are not approved for import, sale or use in both regions unless they are tested for compliance with the region`s vehicle safety laws or for limited non-driving use (e.B. auto show displays).  Since 2015[updated], 135 UN regulations have been annexed to the 1958 Convention; Most regulations apply to a single component or vehicle technology. The following is an incomplete list of current regulations for passenger cars (other regulations may apply to heavy vehicles, motorcycles, etc.). In the context of the negotiations on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), issues of divergent standards in the automotive regulatory structure are being examined. TTIP negotiators are trying to find ways to reduce regulatory disparities, reduce costs and boost additional vehicle trade.  Council Decisions 2013/454/EU and 2013/456/EU amend the decisions on the 2 agreements after the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. The 1998 Agreement applies in parallel with the 1958 Agreement. The aim is to further improve the international harmonization process through the development of global technical regulations (GTAs). The main difference is that the parallel agreement does not provide for mutual recognition of authorisations granted on the basis of global technical regulations.
The 1958 Agreement on the Technical Harmonization of Vehicles was introduced by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The Agreement provides the legal and administrative context for the uniform definition of UN international regulations The 1998 Agreement currently includes 38 Contracting Parties and 20 United Nations gtrs established in the United Nations Global Registry. In 2016[updated], participants in the 1958 Agreement had their United Nations country code: Instead of a styleless type approval system, U.S. and Canadian motor vehicle safety regulations operate on the principle of self-certification, where the manufacturer or importer of a vehicle or automotive equipment certifies – that is, claims and promises – that the vehicle or equipment must comply with all warranties. applicable federal or Canadian motor vehicles. Compliant. Bumpers and anti-theft standards.  A government agency or an accredited testing organization does not require a pre-inspection before the vehicle or equipment can be imported, sold or used.
If there is reason to believe that the certification was false or inappropriate – i.e. the vehicle or equipment is in fact non-compliant – the authorities may carry out tests and, if a non-compliance is detected, order a recall and/or other corrective and/or punitive measures. Vehicle and equipment manufacturers are allowed to appeal these penalties, but this is a difficult direction.  Identified violations that are unlikely to have an impact on road safety may be asked not to comply with recall requirements (corrective actions and notifications) for vehicles already manufactured.  The EU became a party to the 1958 Agreement on 24 March 1998. It is currently not possible to produce a single car design that fully meets the requirements of the United Nations and the United States, but it is becoming easier and easier as technology and both sets of rules evolve. Given the size of the vehicle market in the United States and the different marketing strategies in North America compared to the rest of the world, many manufacturers produce vehicles in four versions: North America, EEC Right Hand Drive (RHD), EEC Left Drive (LHD), and rest of the world (for unregulated countries or countries of poor fuel quality). 15] The “Convention on the Establishment of Global Technical Requirements for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts Which May Be Fitted and/or Be Used in Wheeled Vehicles” or the 1998 Convention is a subsequent agreement.
In accordance with its mandate to harmonize vehicle regulations, UNECE has resolved the main problems (administrative provisions on type-approval as opposed to self-certification and mutual recognition of type approvals) that prevented non-signatories to the 1958 Convention from participating fully in its activities. The World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations is a working party (WP.29) of the Sustainable Transport Division of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). Its task is to manage the multilateral conventions on technical regulations for the construction, registration of wheeled vehicles and their regular roadworthiness tests signed in 1958, 1997 and 1998, and to implement a kind of vehicle regulation within the framework of these three conventions for the elaboration and amendment of UN regulations, United Nations global technical regulations and United Nations rules. The most notable non-signatory to the 1958 Convention is the United States, which has its own federal motor vehicle safety standards and does not recognize UN type approvals. However, both the United States and Canada are parties to the 1998 Agreement, so unspecified vehicles and components that do not comply with U.S. regulations cannot be imported into the United States without significant modifications. Canada has its own Canadian motor vehicle safety standards, which are largely similar to the U.S. FMVSS, but Canada also accepts UN-compliant headlights and bumpers. The upcoming Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement could lead Canada to recognize more UN regulations as acceptable alternatives to Canadian regulations.  Canada currently applies 14 of the 17 most important WEE standards as acceptable alternatives – exceptions at this stage are motorcycle controls and displays, motorcycle mirrors and electronic passenger car stability control. [Citation needed] These other three groups will be admitted until the trade agreement is ratified in Canada. [Citation needed] The first signatories to the 1958 agreement were Italy (28 March), the Netherlands (30 March), Germany (19 June), France (26 June), Hungary (30 June), Sweden and Belgium.
Originally, the Agreement allowed participation only by UNECE member States, but in 1995 the Agreement was revised to allow non-EEC members to participate. Current participants include the European Union and its member countries, as well as non-UNECE members such as Norway, Russia, Ukraine, Croatia, Serbia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Tunisia, and even remote regions such as South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Thailand and Malaysia. WP.29 was established in June 1952 as the “Expert Group on Technical Requirements for Vehicles”, while the current name was adopted in 2000. The core of the Forum`s work is based on the “1958 Agreement” officially entitled “Agreement on the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which May Be Fitted and/or Be Used on Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Mutual Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis of These Prescriptions” (E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2, amended october 16, 1995). This provides a legal framework within which participating countries (Contracting Parties) agree on common technical requirements and protocols for the type-approval of vehicles and components. .